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NASTASI1212 :P ,

Translation? To your service my dear Athenian friend !! By the way, I can translate the whole song if you like, just give me the lyrics !

So here’s the English translation of the two verses zoubou posted here.

“Pano sti trela mou”

Polemo na kaneis sti monaksia
ama den ta vreite eirinika
me ta magika sou kolpa

Trelane tous prin trelatheis
etsi opos fevgeis thelo n’artheis
tipota den exeis na fovitheis
me ta oneira sou gia opla


Make war in your solitude
If (the two of) you cannot sort things out peacefully
Drive them all really mad
With your magic tricks

Drive them mad before you go crazy
I want you to come the way you go
You have nothing to fear
With your dreams as your weapons


I really love this song though the story it tells is not a very happy one and there is no happy end either but it describes wonderfully one of love’s many faces and ELLA performs it with so much empathy and genuine feeling that one cannot help loving it !! Besides, I appreciate the fact that the song is “sweet and spicy” in its contents and language and considering that the song was recorded in the USA in the 1950ies, it must have been a bit daring for a (black) woman to sing it those days… well there was and always will be only one ELLA !!!


After one whole quart of brandy
Like a daisy, I’m awake
With no bromo-seltzer handy
I don’t even shake

Men are not a new sensation
I’ve done pretty well I think
But this half-pint imitation
Put me on the blink

I’m wild again, beguiled again
A simpering, whimpering child again
Bewitched, bothered and bewildered - am I

Couldn’t sleep and wouldn’t sleep
When love came and told me, I shouldn’t sleep
Bewitched, bothered and bewildered - am I

Lost my heart, but what of it
He is cold I agree
He can laugh, but I love it
Although the laugh’s on me

I’ll sing to him, each spring to him
And long, for the day when I’ll cling to him
Bewitched, bothered and bewildered - am I

He’s a fool and don’t I know it
But a fool can have his charms
I’m in love and don’t I show it
Like a babe in arms

Love’s the same old sex sensation
Lately I’ve not slept a wink
Since this half-pint imitation
Put me on the blink

I’ve sinned a lot, I’m mean a lot
But I’m like sweet seventeen a lot
Bewitched, bothered and bewildered - am I

I’ll sing to him, each spring to him
And worship the trousers that cling to him
Bewitched, bothered and bewildered - am I

When he talks, he is seeking
Words to get, off his chest
Horizontally speaking, he’s at his very best
Vexed again, perplexed again
Thank god, I can be oversexed again
Bewitched, bothered and bewildered - am I

Wise at last, my eyes at last,
Are cutting you down to your size at last
Bewitched, bothered and bewildered - no more

Burned a lot, but learned a lot
And now you are broke, so you earned a lot
Bewitched, bothered and bewildered - no more

Couldn’t eat, was dyspeptic
Life was so hard to bear
Now my heart’s antiseptic
Since you moved out of there

Romance, finis. Your chance, finis.
Those ants that invaded my pants, finis.
Bewitched, bothered and bewildered - no more
от oreok
Вт 03 янв 2006, 17:20
Форум: Small talks
Тема: What song do you listen to right now?
Ответы: 294
Просмотры: 154277

1 JANUARY 2006







The following paragraphs (this is not the complete article) on Mozart’s life and travels were taken from this site:



Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) is among the most significant and enduringly popular composers of European classical music and is widely regarded as one of history's greatest composers. His enormous output includes works that are widely acknowledged as pinnacles of symphonic, chamber, piano, operatic, and choral music. Many of his works are part of the standard concert repertory and are widely recognized as masterpieces of the classical style.



Mozart was born in Salzburg to Leopold and Anna Maria Pertl Mozart. He was baptized the day after his birth at St. Rupert's Cathedral. The baptismal record gives his name in Latinized form as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus (Gottlieb) Mozart. Of these names, the first two were saint's names not employed in everyday life and the fourth was variously translated in Mozart's lifetime form as Amadeus (Latin), Gottlieb (German), and Amadé (French); Mozart himself preferred the third (see Mozart's name).

Mozart's musical ability became apparent when he was about three years old. His father Leopold was one of Europe's leading musical pedagogues, whose influential textbook Versuch einer gründlichen Violinschule ("Essay on the fundamentals of violin playing") was published in 1756, the year of Mozart's birth. Mozart received intensive musical training from his father, including instruction in both clavier and violin.


Leopold realized that he could earn a substantial income by showcasing his son as a Wunderkind in the courts of Europe. Mozart soon gained fame as a musical prodigy capable of such feats as playing blindfolded or competently improvising at length on difficult passages. His older sister Maria Anna was a talented pianist and accompanied her brother on the earlier tours. Mozart wrote a number of piano pieces, in particular duets and duos, to play with her. On one occasion when Mozart became very ill, Leopold expressed more concern over the loss of income than over his son's well-being. Constant travel and cold weather may have contributed to his subsequent illness later in life.

During his formative years, Mozart completed several journeys throughout Europe, beginning with an exhibition in 1762 at the Court of the Elector of Bavaria in Munich, then in the same year at the Imperial Court in Vienna. A long concert tour spanning three and a half years followed, taking him with his father to the courts of Munich, Mannheim, Paris, London, The Hague, again to Paris, and back home via Zürich, Donaueschingen, and Munich. They went to Vienna again in late 1767 and remained there until December 1768.

After one year in Salzburg, three trips to Italy followed: from December 1769 to March 1771, from August to December 1771, and from October 1772 to March 1773. During the first of these trips, Mozart met Andrea Luchesi in Venice and G.B. Martini in Bologna and was accepted as a member of the famous Accademia Filarmonica. A highlight of the Italian journey, now an almost legendary tale, occurred when he heard Gregorio Allegri's Miserere once in performance in the Sistine Chapel then wrote it out in its entirety from memory, only returning to correct minor errors; he thus produced the first illegal copy of this closely-guarded property of the Vatican [source documents].

On July 3rd 1778, accompanied by his mother, Mozart began a tour of Europe that included Munich, Mannheim, and Paris, where his mother died.
During his trips, Mozart met a great number of musicians and acquainted himself with the works of other great composers. A particularly important influence was Johann Christian Bach, who befriended Mozart in London in 1764–65. Bach's work is often taken to be an inspiration for the distinctive surface texture of Mozart's music, though not its architecture or drama.
Even non-musicians caught Mozart's attention. He was so taken by the sound created by Benjamin Franklin's glass harmonica that he composed several pieces of music for it.


In 1781 Mozart visited Vienna in the company of his employer, the harsh Prince-Archbishop Colloredo, and soon fell out with him. According to Mozart's own testimony, he was dismissed - literally - "with a kick in the seat of the pants." Mozart chose to settle and develop his career in Vienna after its aristocracy began to take an interest in him.
On August 4, 1782, he married Constanze Weber (1763-1842) (also spelled "Costanze"), albeit against his father's wishes. Although they had six children, only two survived infancy. Neither of these two, Karl Thomas (1784–1858) and Franz Xaver Wolfgang (later a minor composer himself; 1791–1844), married or had children.

1782 was an auspicious year for Mozart's career; his opera Die Entführung aus dem Serail ("The Abduction from the Seraglio") was a great success and he began a series of concerts at which he premiered his own piano concertos as conductor and soloist.

In 1782–83, Mozart became closely acquainted with the work of J.S. Bach and Handel as a result of the influence of Baron Gottfried van Swieten, who owned many manuscripts of works by the Baroque masters. Mozart's study of these works led first to a number of works imitating Baroque style and later had a powerful influence on his own personal musical language, for example the fugal passages in Die Zauberflöte ("The Magic Flute") and the 41st Symphony.

In 1783, Wolfgang and Constanze visited Leopold in Salzburg, but the visit was not a success, as his father did not take to Constanze. However, the visit saw the composition of one of Mozart's great liturgical pieces, the Mass in C Minor, which was premiered in Salzburg, and is presently one of his best known works.

In his early Vienna years, Mozart met Joseph Haydn and the two composers became friends. When Haydn visited Vienna, they sometimes played in an impromptu string quartet. Mozart's six quartets dedicated to Haydn date from 1782–85, and are often judged to be his response to Haydn's Opus 33 set from 1781. Haydn was soon in awe of Mozart, and when he first heard the last three of Mozart's series he told Leopold, "Before God and as an honest man I tell you that your son is the greatest composer known to me either in person or by name. He has taste, and what is more, the most profound knowledge of composition."
During the years 1782-1785, Mozart put on a series of concerts that featured performances by himself of his piano concertos, widely considered among his greatest works. These concerts were financially successful. After 1785 Mozart performed far less and wrote only a few concertos. Maynard Solomon conjectures that he may have suffered from hand injuries; another possibility is that the fickle public ceased to attend the concerts in the same numbers.

As an adult, Mozart, influenced by the ideas of the eighteenth century European Enlightenment, became a Freemason (1784). His lodge was a specifically Catholic rather than deistic one and he worked fervently and successfully to convert his father before the latter's death in 1787. His last opera, Die Zauberflöte, includes Masonic themes and allegory. He was in the same Masonic Lodge as Haydn.

Mozart's life was fraught with financial difficulty and illness. Often, he received no payment for his work, and what sums he did receive were quickly consumed by his extravagant lifestyle.
Mozart spent 1786 in Vienna in an apartment which may be visited today at Domgasse 5 behind St Stephen's Cathedral; it was here that Mozart composed Le nozze di Figaro. He followed this in 1787 with one of his greatest works, Don Giovanni.


Mozart had a special relationship with Prague and the people of Prague. The audience here celebrated their Figaro with the much deserved reverence he was missing in his hometown Vienna. His quote "My Praguers understand me" (Meine Prager verstehen mich) became very famous in the Bohemian lands. Many tourists follow his tracks in Prague and visit the Mozart Museum of the Villa Bertramka where they can enjoy a chamber concert. In Prague, Don Giovanni premiered on October 29, 1787 at the Theatre of the Estates. In the later years of his life, Prague provided Mozart many financial resources from commissions. German poet Eduard Mörike's well-known novella Mozart auf der Reise nach Prag ("Mozart's on the way to Prague") is a fantasy about the composer's trip to that city in order to present Don Giovanni (the story, however, relates episodes that happen along the way, not in Prague itself).


Mozart's final illness and death are difficult scholarly topics, obscured by Romantic legends and replete with conflicting theories. Scholars disagree about the course of decline in Mozart's health—particularly at what point Mozart became aware of his impending death and whether this awareness influenced his final works. The Romantic view holds that Mozart declined gradually and that his outlook and compositions paralleled this decline. In opposition to this, some contemporary scholarship points out correspondence from Mozart's final year indicating that he was in good cheer, as well as evidence that Mozart's death was sudden and a shock to his family and friends. Mozart's grave remains unmarked. His monument is his music.

The actual cause of Mozart's death is also a matter of conjecture. His death record listed "hitziges Frieselfieber" ("severe miliary fever"), a description that does not suffice to identify the cause as it would be diagnosed in modern medicine. Dozens of theories have been proposed, including trichinosis, mercury poisoning, and rheumatic fever. The contemporary practice of bleeding medical patients is also cited as a contributing cause.

Mozart died around 1 a.m. on December 5, 1791, while he was working on his final composition, the Requiem. A younger composer, Franz Xaver Süssmayr, was engaged by Constanze to complete the Requiem. He was not the only composer asked to complete the Requiem but is associated with it over others due to his significant contribution.

According to popular legend, Mozart was penniless and forgotten when he died, and was buried in a pauper's grave. In fact, though he was no longer as fashionable in Vienna as before, he continued to have a well-paid job at court and receive substantial commissions from more distant parts of Europe, Prague in particular. Many of his begging letters survive but they are evidence not so much of poverty as of his habit of spending more than he earned. He was not buried in a "mass grave" but in a regular communal grave according to the 1783 laws. Though the original grave on St. Marx cemetery was lost, memorial gravestones have been placed there and on Zentralfriedhof.

In 1809, Constanze married Danish diplomat Georg Nikolaus von Nissen (1761–1826). Being a fanatical admirer of Mozart, he edited vulgar passages out of many of the composer's letters and wrote a Mozart biography.

In addition, here are some “MOZART” sites (all in English) on the web you might like to visit:






от oreok
Вс 01 янв 2006, 18:51
Форум: Small talks
Ответы: 69
Просмотры: 78666



At: http://www.rampantscotland.com/songs/blsongs_syne.htm


Should auld acquaintance be forgot,
And never brought to mind?
Should auld acquaintance be forgot,
And auld lang syne?


For auld lang syne, my jo,
For auld lang syne,
We'll tak a cup o' kindness yet
For auld lang syne.
And surely you'll be your pint-stowp,
And surely I'll be mine,
And we'll tak a cup o' kindness yet
For auld lang syne!


We twa hae ran about the braes,
And pu'd the gowans fine,
But we've wander'd monie a weary fit
Sin' auld lang syne.


We twa hae paidl'd in the burn
Frae morning sun til dine,
But seas between us braid hae roar'd
Sin' auld lang syne.


And there's a hand, my trusty fiere,
And gie's a hand o' thine,
And we'll tak a right guid-willie waught
For auld lang syne!


Meaning of unusual words:

Auld lang syne = Former days and friends
jo = dear
stowp = tankard
gowans = daisies
braid = broad
Guid-willie waught = friendly draught

Here is the "translation" into modern English. There is no doubt that Burns did it better!


Should old acquaintances be forgotten
And never be remembered?
Should old acquaintances be forgotten
and days long ago.


For days long ago, my dear,
For days long ago
We'll drink a cup of kindness yet
For days long ago!
And surely you'll have your pint tankard
And surely I'll have mine.
And we'll drink a cup of kindness yet
For days long ago.


We two have run about the hills
And pulled the daisies fine
But we've wandered many a weary mile
Since the days long ago.


We two have paddled in the stream
From morning sun till dinner-time
But the broad seas have roared between us
Since the days long ago.


And here's my hand, my trusty friend,
And give me your hand too,
And we will take an excellent good-will drink
For the days of long ago.

Interesting info on the origin and history of this traditional Scottish song


http://www.robertburns.org/encyclopedia ... ne.5.shtml

от oreok
Вс 01 янв 2006, 01:35
Форум: Small talks
Тема: What song do you listen to right now?
Ответы: 294
Просмотры: 154277






Birds do it, bees do it
Even educated fleas do it
Let's do it, let's fall in love
In Spain, the best upper sets do it
Lithuanians and Letts do it
Let's do it, let's fall in love

The Dutch in old Amsterdam do it
Not to mention the Fins
Folks in Siam do it - think of Siamese twins
Some Argentines, without means, do it
People say in Boston even beans do it
Let's do it, let's fall in love

Romantic sponges, they say, do it
Oysters down in oOster Bay do it
Let's do it, let's fall in love
Cold cape cod clams, 'gainst their wish, do it
Even lazy jellyfish, do it
Let's do it, let's fall in love

Electric eels I might add do it
Though it shocks em I know
Why ask if shad do it - waiter bring me Shad roe
In shallow shoals english soles do it
Goldfish in the privacy of bowls do it
Let's do it, let's fall in love


My story is much too sad to be told,
But practically ev'rything leaves me totally cold.
The only exception I know is the case
When I'm out on a quiet spree
Fighting vainly the old ennui
And I suddenly turn and see
Your fabulous face.

I get no kick from champagne.
Mere alcohol doesn't thrill me at all,
So tell me why should it be true
That I get a kick out of you?
Some get a kick from cocaine.
I'm sure that if I took even one sniff
That would bore me terrific'ly too
Yet I get a kick out of you.

I get a kick every time I see
You're standing there before me.
I get a kick though it's clear to me
You obviously don't adore me.
I get no kick in a plane.
Flying too high with some guy in the sky
Is my idea of - nothing to do,
Yet I get a kick out of you.


Time and again I've longed for adventure,
Something to make my heart beat the faster.
What did I long for? I never really knew.
Finding your love I've found my adventure.
Touching your hand, my heart beats the faster
All that I want in all of this world is you.


You are the promised kiss of springtime
That makes the lonely winter seem long.
You are the breathless hush of evening
That trembles on the brink of a lovely song.
You are the angel glow that lights a star,
The dearest things I know are what you are.
Some day my happy arms will hold you,
And some day I'll know that moment divine,
When all the things you are, are mine!
от oreok
Чт 29 дек 2005, 03:13
Форум: Small talks
Тема: What song do you listen to right now?
Ответы: 294
Просмотры: 154277






The origin of the Christmas carol we know as “Silent Night” was a poem that was written in 1816 by an Austrian priest called Joseph Mohr (1792-1848). On Christmas Eve in 1818 in the small alpine village called Oberndorf it is reputed that the organ at St. Nicholas Church had broken. Joseph Mohr gave the poem of “Silent Night” (“Stille Nacht”) to his friend Franz Xavier Gruber (1787-1863) and the melody for “Silent Night” was composed with this in mind. The music to “Silent Night” was therefore intended for a guitar and the simple score was finished in time for Midnight Mass. “Silent Night” is the most famous Christmas carol of all time!


Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht!
Alles schläft, einsam wacht
Nur das traute hochheilige Paar.
Holder Knabe im lockigen Haar,
Schlaf in himmlischer Ruh!
Schlaf in himmlischer Ruh!

Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht,
Hirten erst kund gemacht!
Durch der Engel Halleluja
tönet es laut von fern und nah:
Christ der Retter ist da!
Christ der Retter ist da!

Stille Nacht, heilige Nacht,
Gottes Sohn, o wie lacht
Lieb' aus Deinem göttlichen Mund,
Da uns schlägt die rettende Stund,
Christ, in Deiner Geburt!
Christ, in Deiner Geburt!


Silent night, holy night
All is calm, all is bright
Round yon Virgin Mother and Child
Holy Infant so tender and mild
Sleep in heavenly peace
Sleep in heavenly peace

Silent night, holy night!
Shepherds quake at the sight
Glories stream from heaven afar
Heavenly hosts sing Alleluia!
Christ, the Saviour is born
Christ, the Saviour is born

Silent night, holy night
Son of God, love's pure light
Radiant beams from Thy holy face
With the dawn of redeeming grace
Jesus, Lord, at Thy birth
Jesus, Lord, at Thy birth "


“Hark the herald angels sing” was written by Charles Wesley, brother of John Wesley founder of the Methodist church, in 1739. A sombre man, he requested slow and solemn music for his lyrics and thus “Hark the herald angels sing” was sung to a different tune initially. Over a hundred years later Felix Mendelssohn (1809-1847) composed a cantata in 1840 to commemorate Johann Gutenberg's invention of the printing press. English musician William H. Cummings adapted Mendelssohn’s music to fit the lyrics of “Hark the herald angels sing” already written by Wesley.


Hark! the herald angels sing,
"Glory to the new-born King;
Peace on earth, and mercy mild
God and sinners reconciled.
Joyful, all ye nations rise,
Join the triumph of the skies;
With th'angelic host proclaim,
"Christ is born in Bethlehem!"

Hark! the herald angels sing,
Glory to the new-born King!"

Christ, by highest heav'n adored,
Christ, the everlasting Lord,
Come, Desire of Nations, come,
Fix in us Thy humble home.
Veiled in flesh the Godhead see;
Hail th' Incarnate Deity!
Pleased as man with men to dwell,
Jesus our Immanuel!

Hark! the herald angels sing,
Glory to the new-born King!"

Hail the heav'n-born Prince of Peace!
Hail the Sun of Righteousness!
Light and life to all He brings,
Ris'n with healing in His wings;
Mild He lays His glory by,
Born that man no more may die,
Born to raise the sons of earth,
Born to give them second birth.

Hark! the herald angels sing
"Glory to the new-born King!"


The text to the Carol “O Come All Ye Faithful” was originally written in Latin (“Adeste Fideles”) and was intended to be a hymn. It is attributed to John Wade, an Englishman. The music to “O Come All Ye Faithful” was composed by fellow Englishman John Reading in the early 1700s. The tune was first published in a collection known as "Cantus Diversi" in 1751. In 1841 Rev. Frederick Oakley is reputed to have worked on the familiar translation of “O Come All Ye Faithful” which replaced the older Latin lyrics "Adeste Fideles".


O come all ye faithful joyful and triumphant
Oh come ye O come ye to Bethlehem;
come and behold him born the King of angels;
O come let us adore him (3x)
Christ the Lord.

God of God light of light
lo he abhors not the virgin's womb;
very God begotten not created:
O come let us adore him (3x)
Christ the Lord.

Sing choirs of angels sing in exultation
sing all ye citizens of heaven above;
glory to God in the highest:
O come, let us adore him, (3x)
Christ the Lord.

See how the shepherds summoned to his cradle,
leaving their flocks, draw nigh with lowly fear;
we too will thither head our joyful footsteps;
O come, let us adore him, (3x)
Christ the Lord.

Yea, Lord, we greet thee, born this happy morning;
Jesus, to thee be glory given;
word of the Father, now in flesh appearing:
O come, let us adore him, (3x)
Christ the Lord.


It “Came Upon a Midnight Clear” was written by Edmund Hamilton Sears in 1849. The carol started life as a poem written by its author who was a minister living in Massachusetts at the time. The music for “It Came Upon A Midnight Clear” was composed by American musician Richard Storrs Willis in 1859 who was inspired by the words of the poem.


It came upon the midnight clear,
That glorious song of old,
From angels bending near the earth,
To touch their harps of gold:
"Peace on the earth, goodwill to men
From heavens all gracious King!"
The world in solemn stillness lay
To hear the angels sing.

Still through the cloven skies they come,
With peaceful wings unfurled;
And still their heavenly music floats
O'er all the weary world:
Above its sad and lowly plains
They bend on hovering wing,
And ever o'er its Babel sounds
The blessed angels sing.

O ye beneath life's crushing load,
Whose forms are bending low,
Who toil along the climbing way
With painful steps and slow;
Look now, for glad and golden hours
Come swiftly on the wing;
Oh rest beside the weary road
And hear the angels sing.

For lo! the days are hastening on,
By prophets seen of old,
When with the ever-circling years
Shall come the time foretold,
When the new heaven and earth shall own
The Prince of Peace, their King,
And the whole world send back the song
Which now the angels sing.
от oreok
Чт 22 дек 2005, 01:53
Форум: Small talks
Тема: What song do you listen to right now?
Ответы: 294
Просмотры: 154277


A new day
A new day

I was waiting for so long
For a miracle to come
Everyone told me to be strong
Hold on and don't shed a tear

Through the darkness and good times
I knew I'd make it through
And the world thought I had it all
But I was waiting for you

Hush, love

I see a light in the sky
Oh, it's almost blinding me
I can't believe
I've been touched by an angel with love

Let the rain come down and wash away my tears
Let it fill my soul and drown my fears
Let it shatter the walls for a new sun

A new day has come

Where it was dark now there's light
Where there was pain now there's joy
Where there was weakness, I found my strength
All in the eyes of a boy

Hush, love

I see a light in the sky
Oh, it's almost blinding me
I can't believe
I've been touched by an angel with love

Let the rain come down and wash away my tears
Let it fill my soul and drown my fears
Let it shatter the walls for a new sun

A new day has (come)

Oh, a light

Hush, now

I see a light in your eyes
All in the eyes of a boy

I can't believe
I've been touched by an angel with love (2x)

Hush, now

A new day

Hush, now

A new day


Share my life, take me for what I am
Cause I'll never change all my colours for you
Take my love, I'll never ask for too much
Just all that you are and everything that you do

I don't really need to look very much further
I don't want to have to go where you don't follow
I won't hold it back again, this passion inside
Can't run from myself
There's nowhere to hide
(Your love I'll remember forever)

Don't make me close one more door
I don't wanna hurt anymore
Stay in my arms if you dare
Or must I imagine you there
Don't walk away from me...
I have nothing, nothing, nothing
If I don't have you, you, you, you.

You see through, right to the heart of me
You break down my walls with the strength of your love
I never knew love like I've known it with you
Will a memory survive, one I can hold on to

repeat (chorus)


I love the way you stand in my way
You won't move 'til you get a yes
And how you tell me that my name
It tastes so sweet on your lips
I love the way you hold me with your eyes
Hold me so tight that I can't move
It's like everything I've ever known is alive
And you're the simple truth I know

Is it a dream or is it real?
All I know is you make me feel so beautiful, beautiful, beautiful
You make me feel so beautiful (Feel like I could die)
Beautiful (Trust the grant of sky)
Beautiful (Baby I could cry)
You make me feel so beautiful

I love how soft you touch my skin
Like you touch the wings of a butterfly
I wish we could just lock ourselves away in a room
But there was no such thing in this town
I've never let anyone get this close
I've always been afraid
But you break down every wall and you know I feel so safe

Every part of who I am
Is so in love cause what I have is beautiful
Beautiful, beautiful, beautiful
You make me feel so beautiful (Feel like I could die)
Beautiful (Trust the grant of sky)
Beautiful (Baby I could cry)
You make me feel so beautiful
You make me feel so beautiful (When you touch my face)
Beautiful (When you say my name)
Beautiful (Always find the way)
You make me feel so
от oreok
Ср 21 дек 2005, 03:09
Форум: Small talks
Тема: What song do you listen to right now?
Ответы: 294
Просмотры: 154277

OH.... :oops:

от oreok
Пн 19 дек 2005, 18:08
Форум: Daniil STRAKHOV
Ответы: 85
Просмотры: 53870

DANYA SWEETIE !!! :blush:

I've got an idea for a very good XMAS present for you :laugh: : ask Darina to be your personal lawyer :wink: :wink: :lol: :D !!

You must admit that this brilliant woman undoubtedly knows how and where to present damn good counter arguments :mrgreen: !!! I assure you she would always do a great job, wouldn't you Darina love ? :wink: :wink: :D :lol: 8)
от oreok
Пн 19 дек 2005, 02:57
Форум: Daniil STRAKHOV
Ответы: 85
Просмотры: 53870

Hello lala honey :P !!

This is really sweet of you !!! :D :P :wink: Ooooooooohhh, he's lovely on the pic :wub: (ha ha :wink: :) as usual). This moment I remember zoubou's words: "Please Danya, would you be my XMAS present?" :oops: :roll: :wink: :lol: 8)

Merry XMAS to you, too lala !!
от oreok
Пн 19 дек 2005, 02:38
Форум: Small talks
Тема: What song do you listen to right now?
Ответы: 294
Просмотры: 154277

Hello lala honey :P !!

This is really sweet of you !!! :D :P :wink: Ooooooooohhh, he's lovely on the pic :wub: (ha ha :wink: :) as usual). This moment I remember zoubou's words: "Please Danya, would you be my XMAS present?" :oops: :roll: :wink: :lol: 8)

Merry XMAS to you, too lala !!
от oreok
Пн 19 дек 2005, 02:37
Форум: Small talks
Тема: What song do you listen to right now?
Ответы: 294
Просмотры: 154277

Hello lala honey :P !!

This is really sweet of you !!! :D :P :wink: Ooooooooohhh, he's lovely on the pic :wub: (ha ha :wink: :) as usual). This moment I remember zoubou's words: "Please Danya, would you be my XMAS present?" :oops: :roll: :wink: :lol: 8)

Merry XMAS to you, too lala !!
от oreok
Пн 19 дек 2005, 02:35
Форум: Small talks
Тема: What song do you listen to right now?
Ответы: 294
Просмотры: 154277



Rudolph, the red-nosed reindeer
had a very shiny nose.
And if you ever saw him,
you would even say it glows.

All of the other reindeer
used to laugh and call him names.
They never let poor Rudolph
join in any reindeer games.

Then one foggy Christmas Eve
Santa came to say:
"Rudolph with your nose so bright,
won't you guide my sleigh tonight?"

Then all the reindeer loved him
as they shouted out with glee,
Rudolph the red-nosed reindeer,
you'll go down in history!


It's a marshmallow world in the winter
When the snow comes to cover the ground
It's the time for play, its a whipped cream day
I wait for it the whole year round.

Those are marshmallow clouds being friendly
In the arms of the evergreen trees
And the sun is red like a pumpkin head
It's shining so your nose wont freeze.

The world is your snowball, see how it grows
That's how it goes whenever it snows
The world is your snowball just for a song
Get out and roll it along

It's a yum-yummy world made for sweethearts
Take a walk with your favorite girl
It's a sugar date, what if spring is late
In winter it's a marshmallow world.



I really can't stay - Baby it's cold outside
I've got to go away - Baby it's cold outside
This evening has been - Been hoping that you'd drop in
So very nice - I'll hold your hands, they're just like ice
My mother will start to worry - Beautiful, what's your hurry
My father will be pacing the floor - Listen to the fireplace roar
So really I'd better scurry - Beautiful, please don't hurry
well Maybe just a half a drink more - Put some music on while I pour

The neighbors might think - Baby, it's bad out there
Say, what's in this drink - No cabs to be had out there
I wish I knew how - Your eyes are like starlight now
To break this spell - I'll take your hat, your hair looks swell
I ought to say no, no, no, sir - Mind if I move a little closer
At least I'm gonna say that I tried - What's the sense in hurting my pride
I really can't stay - Baby don't hold out
Ahh, but it's cold outside

C'mon baby

I simply must go - Baby, it's cold outside
The answer is no - Ooh baby, it's cold outside
This welcome has been - I'm lucky that you dropped in
So nice and warm -- Look out the window at that storm
My sister will be suspicious - Man, your lips look so delicious
My brother will be there at the door - Waves upon a tropical shore
My maiden aunt's mind is vicious - Gosh your lips look delicious
Well maybe just a half a drink more - Never such a blizzard before

I've got to go home - Oh, baby, you'll freeze out there
Say, lend me your comb - It's up to your knees out there
You've really been grand - Your eyes are like starlight now
But don't you see - How can you do this thing to me
There's bound to be talk tomorrow - Making my life long sorrow
At least there will be plenty implied - If you caught pneumonia and died
I really can't stay - Get over that old out
Ahh, but it's cold outside

Baby it's cold outside

Brr its cold….
It's cold out there
Cant you stay awhile longer baby
Well…..I really shouldn't...alright

Make it worth your while baby
Ahh, do that again….
от oreok
Чт 15 дек 2005, 17:51
Форум: Small talks
Тема: What song do you listen to right now?
Ответы: 294
Просмотры: 154277


Jimmy Beaumont & The Skyliners

The tree is all trimmed now,
The fireplace is aglow,
And outside quiet streets,
Are all covered with snow,
So darling let me tell you,
On this day of days,
Baby, you're my Christmas present,
My Christmas past, my Christmas always.

In the night, church bells ring,
Their message, a cheer,
And somewhere canvassing,
Soon Santa will be here,
And this I swear as into,
Your warm eyes I gaze,
Baby you're my Christmas present,
My Christmas past, my Christmas always.

So on this silent night,
Let me hold you tight,
And make you know just how good love can be,
There's no gift of hope,
And no treasure untold,
That's as precious as you are to me.

The stars twinkle on high,
Our world is so fine,
And I wish you Merry Christmas,
And as you pour the wine,
For you, this toast my darling,
As my glass I raise,
Baby you're my Christmas present,
My Christmas past, my Christmas always.
You're my Christmas always.


Brook Benton

I want my arms around you for Christmas
I need no presents under the tree
You're all I want, my darling
And that will be the world to me.

I want to share your kisses for Christmas
The rest is only tinsel and show
You're all I want, my darling
At candle glow and mistletoe.

As far as I'm concerned
Santa doesn't have to load his sleigh
He can mark my other gifts 'returned'
Or give them all away.

I only want your lovin' for Christmas
No other kind of present will do
You're all I want, my darling
Please want me too
Please want me too
Please want me too
As I want you.
от oreok
Чт 15 дек 2005, 01:58
Форум: Small talks
Тема: What song do you listen to right now?
Ответы: 294
Просмотры: 154277





Santa Claus (also known as Saint Nicholas, Saint Nick, Father Christmas, Kris Kringle, Santy or simply Santa) is a folk hero in various cultures who distributes gifts to children, normally on Christmas Eve. Each name is a variation of Saint Nicholas, but refers to Santa Claus.

Father Christmas is a well-loved figure in the United Kingdom, and is now interchangeable with Santa Claus, though the two had quite different origins. The term Santa is as widely used and understood by British children as Father Christmas.

A classic image of jolly old Saint Nick.Santa is a variant of a European folk tale based on the historical figure Saint Nicholas, a bishop from present-day Turkey, who supposedly gave presents to the poor. This inspired the mythical figure of Sinterklaas, the subject of a major celebration in the Netherlands (where his alledged birthday is celebrated), which in turn inspired both the myth and the name of Santa Claus.

He forms an important part of the Christmas tradition throughout the Western world as well as in Latin America and Japan and other parts of East Asia.

In many Eastern Orthodox traditions, Santa Claus visits children on New Year's Day and is identified with Saint Basil whose memory is celebrated on that day.

Depictions of Santa Claus also have a close relationship with the Russian character of Ded Moroz ("Grandfather Frost"). He delivers presents to children and has a red coat, fur boots and long white beard. Much of the iconography of Santa Claus could be seen to derive from Russian traditions of Ded Moroz, particularly transmitted into western European culture through his German folklore equivalent, Vдterchen Frost.

Russian Ded MorozConventionally, Santa Claus is portrayed as a kindly, round-bellied, merry, bespectacled white man in a red coat trimmed with white fur, with a long white beard. On Christmas Eve, he rides in his sleigh pulled by flying reindeer from house to house to give presents to children. To enter the house, Santa Claus comes down the chimney and exits through the fireplace. During the rest of the year he lives together with his wife Mrs. Claus and his elves manufacturing toys. Some modern depictions of Santa (often in advertising and popular entertainment) will show the elves and Santa's workshop as more of a processing and distribution facility, ordering and receiving the toys from various toy manufacturers from across the world. His home is usually given as either the North Pole in the United States (Alaska), northern Canada, Korvatunturi in Finnish Lapland, Dalecarlia in Sweden, or Greenland, depending on the tradition and country. Sometimes Santa's home is in Caesarea when he is identified as Saint Basil.

Since most activities associated with Santa Claus are extraordinary, such as delivering presents to all of the believing children in one night, how he squeezes down chimneys, how he enters homes without chimneys, why he never dies, and how he makes reindeer fly, "magic" is usually used to explain his actions.


The modern Santa Claus is thought to be a composite character made up from the merging of quite separate figures.

Ancient Christian origins

St. Nicholas, with his crozier and miter, as he appears on a German holy card.The first of these is Saint Nicholas of Myra, an 4th century AD Christian bishop of Myra in Lycia, a province of Byzantine Anatolia, now in Turkey. Nicholas was famous for his generous gifts to the poor, in particular presenting the three impoverished daughters of a pious Christian with dowries so that they would not have to become prostitutes. He was born at Patara, province of Lycia, Asia Minor. He was very religious from an early age and devoted his life entirely to Christianity. In Europe (more precisely the Netherlands, Belgium, Austria and Germany) he is still portrayed as a bearded bishop in canonical robes. The relics of St. Nicholas were transported to Bari in southern Italy by some enterprising Italian merchants; a basilica was constructed in 1087 to house them and the area became a pilgrimage site for the devout. Saint Nicholas became revered by many as the patron saint of seamen, merchants, archers, children, prostitutes, pharmacists, lawyers, pawnbrokers, prisoners, the city of Amsterdam and of Russia. In Greece, Saint Nicholas is sometimes substituted for Saint Basil (Vasilis in Greek), a 4th century AD bishop from Caesarea. Also, a few villages in West Flanders, Belgium, celebrate a near identical figure, Sint-Maarten (Saint Martin of Tours).[1]

Germanic folklore

Odin, the wanderer.Prior to the Germanic peoples' conversion to Christianity, Germanic folklore contained stories about the god Odin (Wodan), who would each year, at Yule, have a great hunting party accompanied by his fellow gods and the fallen warriors residing in his realm. Children would place their boots, filled with carrots, straw or sugar, near the chimney for Odin's flying horse, Sleipnir, to eat. Odin would then reward those children for their kindness by replacing Sleipnir's food with gifts or candy [Siefker, chap. 9, esp. 171-173]. This practice survived in Belgium and the Netherlands after the adoption of Christianity and became associated with Saint Nicholas. Children still place their straw filled shoes at the chimney every winter night, and Saint Nicholas (who, unlike Santa, is still riding a horse) rewards them with candy and gifts. Odin's appearance was often similar to that of Saint Nicholas, being depicted as an old, mysterious man with a beard. (Other features, like the absense of one eye, are not found in Saint Nicholas.) This practice in turn came to America via the Dutch colony of New Amsterdam, New York and New York City prior to the British seizure in the 17th century, and evolved into the hanging of socks or stockings at the fireplace.

Another early folk tale, originating among the Germanic tribes, tells of a holy man (sometimes Saint Nicholas), and a demon (sometimes the Devil, Krampus, or a troll). The story states that the land was terrorized by a monster who at night would slither down the chimneys and slaughter children (disembowelling them or stuffing them up the flue, or keeping them in a sack to eat later). The holy man sought out the demon, and tricked it with blessed or magical shackles (in some versions the same shackles that imprisoned Christ prior to the crucifixion, in other versions the shackles were those used to hold St. Peter or Paul of Tarsus); the demon was trapped and forced to obey the saint's orders. The saint ordered him to go to each house and make amends, by delivering gifts to the children. Depending on the version, the saint either made the demon fulfil this task every year, or the demon was so disgusted by the act of good will that it chose to be sent back to Hell.

A white Dutchman in blackface costume and afro wig as Zwarte PietYet other versions have the demon reform under the saint's orders, and go on to recruit other elves and imps into helping him, thus becoming Santa Claus. In an alternate Dutch version, the saint is aided by Moorish slaves, commonly typified as Zwarte Piet ("Black Peter"). Some tales depict Zwarte Piet beating bad children with a rod or even taking them to Spain (formerly ruled by the Moors) in a sack.

Another form of the above tale in Germany is of the Pelznickel or Belsnickle ("Furry Nicholas") who visited naughty children in their sleep. The name originiated from the fact that the person appeared to be a huge beast since he was covered from head to toe in furs.

Modern origins

The Ghost of Christmas Present, a colorized version of the original illustration by John Leech made for Charles Dickens's novel A Christmas Carol (1843).Pre-modern representations of the gift-giver from church history and folklore merged with the British character Father Christmas to create the character known to Britons and Americans as Santa Claus. Father Christmas dates back at least as far as the 17th century in Britain, and pictures of him survive from that era, portraying him as a well-nourished bearded man dressed in a long, green, fur-lined robe. He typified the spirit of good cheer at Christmas, and was reflected in the "Ghost of Christmas Present" in Charles Dickens's A Christmas Carol.

The name Santa Claus is derived from Sinterklaas, the Dutch name for the mythical character based on St. Nicholas. He is also known there by the name of Sint Nicolaas which explains the use of the two fairly dissimilar names Santa Claus and Saint Nicholas or St. Nick.

Sinterklaas wears clothing similar to a bishop's. He wears a red miter (a liturgical headdress worn by bishops and abbots) with a 'golden' cross and carries a bishop's staff. The connection with the original bishop of Myra is still evident here. He rides a white horse over rooftops and his helpers climb down chimneys to deposit gifts (sometimes in children's shoes by the fireplace). Sinterklaas arrives from Spain on a steamboat and is accompanied by Zwarte Piet.

Folk tale depiction of Father Christmas riding on a goat. Perhaps an evolved version of the Swedish Tomte.Presents given during this feast are often accompanied by poems, sometimes fairly basic, sometimes quite elaborate pieces of art that mock events in the past year relating to the recipient (who is thus at the receiving end in more than one sense). The gifts themselves may be just an excuse for the wrapping, which can also be quite elaborate. The more serious gifts may be reserved for the next morning. Since the giving of presents is Sinterklaas's job presents are traditionally not given at Christmas in the Netherlands, but commercialism is starting to tap into this market.

In other countries, the figure of Saint Nicholas was also blended with local folklore. As an example of the still surviving pagan imagery, in Nordic countries there is the Yule goat (Swedish julbock), a somewhat startling figure with horns which will deliver the presents on Christmas Eve, and a straw goat is a common Christmas decoration. Later, though, in Sweden and Norway, the gift bringer was seen as identical with the Tomte, or tomtenisse, another folklore creature. In Finland, the Yule goat is joulupukki.

American origins

Thomas Nast immortalized Santa Claus with an illustration for the January 3, 1863, issue of Harper's Weekly.In the Britsh colonies of North America and later the United States, British and Dutch versions of the gift-giver merged further. For example, in Washington Irving's History of New York, Sinterklaas was Americanized into "Santa Claus" but lost his bishop's apparel, and was at first pictured as a thick-bellied Dutch sailor with a pipe in a green winter coat. Irving's book was a lampoon of the Dutch culture of New York, and much of this portrait is his joking invention.

Modern ideas of Santa Claus seemingly became canon after the publication of the poem "A Visit From St. Nicholas" (better known today as "The Night Before Christmas") in the Troy, New York, Sentinel on December 23, 1823. The poem is ascribed to Clement Clarke Moore, although there is some question as to his authorship. In this poem Santa is established as a heavyset individual with eight reindeer (who are named for the first time). Santa Claus later appeared in various colored costumes as he gradually became amalgamated with the figure of Father Christmas, but red soon became popular after he appeared wearing such on an 1885 Christmas card. Still, one of the first artists to capture Santa Claus' image as we know him today was Thomas Nast, an American cartoonist of the 19th century. In 1863, a picture of Santa illustrated by Nast appeared in Harper's Weekly (it is believed the inspiration for his image came from the Pelznickle). Another popularization came in 1902 in The Life and Adventures of Santa Claus by L. Frank Baum, author of The Wonderful Wizard of Oz.

Specially designed Christmas labels featuring Santa Claus give a seasonal twist to these Coca-Cola bottles.Images of Santa Claus were further cemented through Haddon Sundblom's depiction of him for The Coca-Cola Company's Christmas advertising. The popularity of the image spawned urban legends that Santa Claus was in fact invented by Coca-Cola. Nevertheless, Santa Claus and Coca-Cola have been closely associated, except for 2005 when Santa was replaced in advertising by Coca-Cola's polar bears.[2]

The image of Santa Claus as a benevolent character became reinforced with its association with charity and philanthropy, particularly organizations such as the Salvation Army. Volunteers dressed as Santa Claus typically became part of fundraising drives to aid needy families at Christmas time.

Some suspect that the depiction of Santa at the North Pole reflected popular opinion about industry at the time. In some images of the early 20th century, Santa was depicted as personally making his toys by hand in a small workshop like a craftsman.

A man dressed up as Santa Claus fundraising for Volunteers of America on the sidewalk of street in Chicago, Illinois, in 1902. He is wearing a mask with a beard attached. DN-0001069, Chicago Daily News negatives collection, Chicago Historical Society.Eventually, the idea emerged that he had numerous elves responsible for making the toys, but the toys were still handmade by each individual elf working in the traditional manner. By the end of the century, the reality of mass mechanized production became more fully accepted by the Western public. That shift was reflected in the modern depiction of Santa's residence—now often humorously portrayed as a fully mechanized production facility, equipped with the latest manufacturing technology, and overseen by the elves with Santa and Mrs. Claus as managers [see Nissenbaum, chap. 2; Belk, 87-100]. Many television commercials depict this as a sort of humorous business, with Santa's elves acting as a sometimes mischievously disgruntled workforce, cracking jokes and pulling pranks on their boss. Santa Claus continues to inspire writers and artists, such as in author Seabury Quinn's 1948 novel Roads. Other additions to early ideas of Santa include Rudolph the Red-Nosed Reindeer, the ninth reindeer immortalized in a Gene Autry song, written by a Montgomery Ward copywriter. Adding even more to the legend, a current popular comic book series Jingle Belle by writer/cartoonist Paul Dini depicts Santa Claus as a harried father with a rebellious half-human, half-elf teenage daughter.

Other possible origins

American mycologist Jonathan Ott suggests that many of the modern features attributed to Santa Claus may somehow be derived from those of the Kamchatkan or Siberian shaman. Apparently, during the midwinter festival (holiday season) in Siberia (near the north pole), the shaman would enter a yurt (home) through the shangrak (chimney), bringing with him a sack of fly agaric mushrooms (presents) to give to the inhabitants. This type of mushroom is brightly colored red and white, like Santa Claus, though the relevance of this is questionable. The mushrooms were often hung (to dry) in front of the fireplace, much like the stockings of modern-day Christmas. Furthermore, the mushrooms were associated with reindeer who were known to eat them and become intoxicated. Reindeer are also associated with the shaman, and like Santa Claus, many people believed that the shaman could fly.[3]

Santa Claus rituals

Several rituals have developed around the Santa Claus figure that are normally performed by children hoping to receive gifts from him.

Christmas Eve rituals

In the United States, the tradition is to leave Santa a glass of milk and cookies; in Britain, he is given sherry and mince pies instead.

British and American children also leave out a carrot for Santa's reindeer, and were traditionally told that if they are not good all year round, that they will receive a lump of coal in their stockings, although this practice is now considered archaic. Children following the Dutch custom for sinterklaas will "put out their shoe" — that is, leave hay and a carrot for his horse in a shoe before going to bed — sometimes weeks before the sinterklaas avond. The next morning they will find the hay and carrot replaced by a gift; often, this is a marzipan figurine. Naughty children were once told that they would be left a roe (a bundle of sticks) instead of sweets, but this practice has been discontinued.

Letter writing

Writing letters to Santa Claus has been a Christmas tradition for children for many years. These letters normally contain wishlists of toys and assertions of good behavior. Interestingly, some social scientists have found that boys and girls write different types of letters. Girls generally write more polite, longer (although they do not request more), and express more expressions of the nature of Christmas in their letters than in letters written by boys. Girls also request gifts for other people on a more frequent basis [Otnes, Kim, and Kim, 20-21].

Many postal services allow children to send letters to Santa Claus pleading their good behavior and requesting gifts; these letters may be answered by postal workers or other volunteers. Canada Post has a special postal code for letters to Santa Claus: H0H 0H0 (see: Ho ho ho), and since 1982 over 13,000 Canadian postal workers have volunteered to write responses.[4] Sometimes children's charities answer letters in poorer communities or from children's hospitals in order to give them presents that they would not otherwise receive.

Christian opposition to Santa Claus

Excerpt from Josiah King's The Examination and Tryal of Father Christmas (1686), published shortly after Christmas was reinstated as a holy day in England. Folger Shakespeare Library, Washington, D.C.Despite Santa Claus's mixed Christian roots, he has become a secular representation of Christmas. As such, a small number of primarily fundamentalist Christian churches dislike the secular focus on Santa Claus and the materialist focus that present-giving gives to the holiday. Such a condemnation of Santa Claus is not a twentieth century phenomenon, but originated among some Protestant groups of the 16th century and was prevalent among the Puritans of 17th century England and America banned the holiday as either pagan or Roman Catholic. Following the English Civil War, under Oliver Cromwell's government Christmas was banned. Following the Restoration of the monarchy and Puritans were out of power in England, the ban on Christmas was satirized in works such as Josiah King's The Examination and Tryal of Old Father Christmas; Together with his Clearing by the Jury (1686) [Nissenbaum, chap. 1].[13] Rev. Paul Nedergaard, a clergyman in Copenhagen, Denmark, drew the ire of Danish citizens in 1958 when he declared Santa to be a "pagan goblin" after Santa's image was used on fundraising materials for a Danish welfare organization [Clar, 337]. One prominent American denomination that refuses to celebrate Santa Claus or Christmas for similar reasons are the Jehovah's Witnesses, but some Christians of all stripes have oppositions to Santa Claus of some sort.[14] Some Christians would prefer that the focus be given on the actual birth of Jesus. Some parents are uncomfortable about "lying" to their children about the existence of Santa. Some parents worry that their children might think that if they were deceived by their parents about Santa Claus, they might be deceiving them about God's existence as well. While these viewpoints of do not represent the majority of Christians, their comments have drawn the attention of critics such as the fictional Landover Baptist Church, whose website satirizes and parodies this viewpoint.[15]



Saint Nicholas is the common name for Saint Nicholas of Myra, who lived in 4th century Byzantine Lycia, (modern Turkey), who had a reputation for secret gift-giving. This is as much as is generally known about him in the West.

This historical character was the inspiration for a mythical figure known as Nikolaus in Germany and Sinterklaas in the Netherlands and Flanders, which in turn was the inspiration for the myth of Santa Claus. Sinterklaas (a contracted form of Sint Nicolaas) is a major celebration in the Netherlands (see below). Among Orthodox Christians, he is remembered with more reverence and less frivolity.

Saint Nicholas is revered by many as the patron saint of seamen, merchants, archers, children, prostitutes, pharmacists, lawyers, pawnbrokers, prisoners, the city of Amsterdam and of Russia.

Nicholas the clergyman

Nicholas of Myra (also Nikolaus) in Lycia, Asia Minor, (lived c. 270 - 345/352) was a 4th century bishop and is a Christian saint. His feast day is December 6, presumably the date of his death. In the Netherlands 5 December is known as his feast: this is Sinterklaasavond, or St. Nicholas' Eve. Among Christians, he is also known as the "Wonderworker". Several acts of kindness and miracles are attributed to him. Historical accounts often confuse him with the later Nicholas of Sion.

Nicholas was born in Asia Minor during the 3rd century at Patara in the province of Lycia,, at a time when the region was Hellenistic in its culture and outlook. Nicholas became bishop of the city of Myra. He was very religious from an early age and devoted his life entirely to Christianity. He is said to have been born to relatively affluent Christian parents in Patara, Lycia, Asia Minor, Roman Empire where he also received his early schooling. He came to Myra to continue his studies. A paternal uncle of his introduced him to the local bishop. The latter is said to have seen potential to the youth and took Nicholas under his patronage. Nicholas received his ordination as a priest at an early age. When his parents died Nicholas still received his inheritance but is said to have given it away in charity.

Nicholas' early activities as a priest are said to have occurred during the reign of co-ruling Roman Emperors Diocletian (reigned 284 - 305) and Maximian (reigned 286 - 305) from which comes the estimation of his age. Diocletian issued an edict in 303 authorising the systematic persecution of Christians across the Empire. Following the abdication of the two Emperors on May 1, 305 the policies of their successors towards Christians were different. In the Western part of the Empire Constantius Chlorus (reigned 305 - 306) put an end to the systematic persecution upon receiving the throne. In the Eastern part Galerius (reigned 305 - 311) continued the persecution until 311 when he issued a general edict of toleration from his deathbed. The persecution of 303 - 311 is considered to be the longest in the history of the Empire. Nicholas survived this period although his activities at the time are uncertain.

Following Galerius' death his surviving co-ruler Licinius (reigned 307 - 324) mostly tolerated Christians. As a result their community was allowed to further develop, and the various bishops who acted as their leaders managed to concentrate religious, social and political influence as well as wealth in their hands. In many cases they acted as the heads of their respective cities. It is apparently in this period that Nicholas rose to become bishop of Myra. Judging from tradition he was probably well-loved and respected in his area mostly as a result of his charitable activities. As with other bishops of the time, Nicholas' popularity would serve to ensure his position and influence during and after this period.

The destruction of several pagan temples is also attributed to him, among them one temple of Artemis (also known as Diana). Because the celebration of Diana's birth is on December 6, some authors have speculated that this date was deliberately chosen for Nicholas' feast day to overshadow or replace the pagan celebrations.

Nicholas is also known for coming to the defence of the falsely accused, often preventing them from being executed, and for his prayers on behalf of sailors and other travellers. The popular veneration of Nicholas as a saint seems to have started relatively early. Justinian I, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire (reigned 527 - 565) is reported to have built a temple (i.e. a church building) in Nicholas's honour in Constantinople, the Roman capital of the time.

Bishop Nicholas at the First Ecumenical Council

In 324 Licinius was defeated in a war against his Western co-ruler Constantine I of the Roman Empire (reigned 306 - 337). The end of the war found the Roman Empire unified under the rule of Constantine. In place of tolerance his policies towards Christians consisted of active support. Under his patronage the Christian church experienced an age of prosperity. But the relative peace of his reign brought to the forefront the internal conflict within contemporary Christianity. One of the apparent main reasons of this conflict was the failure to agree to a commonly accepted concept about God in general and Jesus in particular. At this times the teachings of Arius in Alexandria, Egypt were gaining popular support but also attracting great opposition. They would form the basis of Arianism. Emerging fanaticism in both opposing factions only resulted in spreading tumult across the Empire.

Deciding to address the problem as a matter of the state, Constantine called the First Council of Nicaea which also was the first Ecumenical council in 325. The number of attendants at the council is uncertain with Eusebius of Caesarea reporting as few as 250 and Athanasius of Alexandria as many as 318. In any case Nicholas is usually counted among them and was noted as an opponent of Arianism.

A later writer claimed that after Arius had presented his case against Jesus' divinity to the Council, Nicholas hit Arius in the face out of indignation. Nicholas was kicked out of the Council for this offence, and jailed as well. However, according to this account, that night the Virgin Mary appeared in a vision to many of the bishops of the Council, telling them to forgive Nicholas, for he had done it out of love for her Son. They released Nicholas and allowed him back into the process the next day.

The council lasted from May 20 to June 19, 325 and resulted in the declaration of the Nicene Creed and the formal condemnation of Arianism. The books of Arius and his followers were condemned to be burned but the execution of this decision was left at the hands of each bishop for their respective territories. To what point this decision was followed remains uncertain.

Following this apparent victory to his faction Nicholas returned to Myra. He is applauded by later Christian writers for keeping Myra free of Arianism. But the decisions of the council failed to stop the spread of Arianism. In fact the tides soon turned and in his later years Arianism managed to win favour with Constantine. In fact Constantine was baptised by Eusebius of Nicomedia, an Arian bishop who had also attended the council, shortly before his death on May 22, 337. Constantine was succeeded by his three surviving sons: Constantine II of the Roman Empire (reigned 337 - 340), Constantius II (reigned 337 - 361) and Constans (reigned 337 - 350). Constantius originally received the Eastern part of the Empire but the death of his brothers left the entire Empire under his control. During his reign he strongly favoured Arianism by seeking to place Arian bishops in most positions. There is no indication that Nicholas was affected by these policies and he remained in his position till his death. This lack of disturbance by the Arian Emperor has been seen as indicating the strong support Nicholas had gained among the people of his territory. According to this reasoning not even Constantius would risk a possible revolt by removing a popular bishop.

Abduction of his relics

On August 26, 1071 Romanus IV, Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire (reigned 1068 - 1071) faced Sultan Alp Arslan of the Seljuk Turks (reigned 1059 - 1072) in the Battle of Manzikert. The battle ended in humiliating defeat and capture for Romanus. As a result the Empire temporarily lost control over most of Asia Minor to the invading Seljuk Turks. It would regain its control over Asia Minor during the reign of Alexius I Comnenus, (reigned 1081 - 1118). But early in his reign Myra was overtaken by the Islamic invaders. Taking advantage of the confusion sailors from Bari, Italy seized the remains of the saint over the objections of the Orthodox monks then caring for them. Returning to Bari they brought the remains with them. The remains arrived on May 9, 1087. Some observers have reported seeing myrrh exude from these relics.

There is now a Greek chapel in place at Bari for Eastern Orthodox liturgies for pilgrims of that faith, so that nobody is excluded from the veneration. Turkey continues to demand the return of the relics.

Formal veneration of the saint

Among the Greeks and Italians he is a favourite of sailors, fishermen, ships and sailing. As such he has become over time the patron saint of several cities maintaining harbours. In centuries of Greek folklore, Nicholas was seen as "The Lord of the Sea", often described by modern Greek scholars as more or less a christianised version of Poseidon. In modern Greece, he is still easily among the most recognisable saints and December 6 finds many cities celebrating their patron saint. He is also the patron saint of all of Greece.

In addition, he is celebrated as a great gift-giver in several Western European countries. His reputation for gift giving comes partly from a story of three young women who were too poor to afford a dowry for their marriages: as each reached a marriageable age, Nicholas surreptitiously threw a bag of gold into the house at night. Some versions of the legend say that the girls' father, trying to discover their benefactor, kept watch on the third occasion, but Nicholas dropped the third bag down the chimney instead. For his helping the "financially challenged", St. Nicholas is the patron saint of pawnbrokers; the three gold balls traditionally hung outside a pawnshop are symbolic of the three sacks of gold. People then began to suspect that he was behind a large number of other anonymous gifts to the poor, using the inheritance from his wealthy parents. After he died, people in the region continued to give to the poor anonymously, and such gifts were still often attributed to St. Nicholas. It should be noted perhaps that a nearly identical story is attributed by Greek folklore to Basil of Caesarea. Basil's feast day on January 1 is also considered a time of exchanging gifts.

Due to modern association with Christmas, Saint Nicholas is a patron saint of Christmas, as well as pawnbrokers (see above). He was also a patron of the Varangian Guard of the Eastern Roman Emperors, who protected his relics in Bari.

In iconography

St Nicholas, the patron saint of Russian merchants. Fresco by Dionisius from the Ferapontov Monastery.The holy person of St. Nicholas is a popular subject portrayed on countless Eastern Orthodox icons, particularly Russian ones.

"Icons are quite literally meant to be 'Windows Into Heaven' and to instill in the viewer an attitude of prayerful reflection on the Divine. In Russia icons were not only displayed in churches, but are given the place of honour in many homes, thus serving as a daily reminder to live in strict accordance with Christian virtue, values and duties." (Source: The InstaPLANET Cultural Universe).

Saint Nicholas the festive gift-giver

Saint Nicholas Day is a festivity for children in much of Europe related to surviving legends of the saint, and particularly his reputation as a bringer of gifts. The American and British Santa Claus derives from this festivity, the name 'Santa Claus' being a degeneration of the Dutch word Sinterklaas.

Some elements of this part of the Saint Nicholas tradition could be traced back to the Germanic god Wodan (Odin). The appearance is similar to some portrayals of this god. In the Saint Nicholas tradition in the Netherlands he rides a horse over the rooftops, and this may be derived from Odin's riding through the sky. Also his assistants, the Zwarte Pieten ('Black Peters') may be a remnant of the raven that accompanied Wodan. It may also be a reference to African slaves.

The history of the festive Saint Nicholas celebration is complex and reflects conflicts between Protestantism and Catholicism. Since Nicholas was a canonised saint, Martin Luther replaced the festival that had become associated with the Papacy with a "Christkind" (Christ child) celebration on Christmas Eve. The Nicholas celebrations still remain a part of tradition among many Protestants, albeit on a much lower scale than Christmas. The Protestant Netherlands, however, retain a much larger Saint Nicholas tradition. Many Catholics, on the other hand, have adopted Luther's Christkind.

Celebration in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia, Slovenia, Hungary and Luxembourg

In Germany, Nikolaus is usually celebrated on a small scale. Many children put a boot, called Nikolaus-Stiefel, outside their front doors on the night of December 5 to December 6. St. Nicholas fills the boot with gifts, and at the same time checks up on the children to see if they were good. If they were not, they will have charcoal in their boots instead. Sometimes a disguised Nikolaus also visits the children at school or in their homes and asks them if they "have been good" (sometimes ostensibly checking a book for their record), handing out presents on a per-behaviour basis. This has become more lenient in recent decades.

But for many children, Nikolaus also elicited fear, as he was often accompanied by Knecht Ruprecht, who would threaten to beat, or sometimes actually eat the children for misbehaviour. Knecht Rupert furthermore was equipped with goatlegs. In Switzerland, where he is called Schmutzli, he would threaten to put bad children in a sack and take them back to the Black Forest. In other accounts he would throw the sack into the river, drowning the naughty children within. These traditions were implemented more rigidly in Catholic countries such as Austria. In highly Catholic regions, the local priest was informed by the parents about their children's behaviour and would then personally visit the homes in the traditional Christian garment and threaten them with rod-beatings. In parts of Austria, Krampusse, whom local tradition says are Nikolaus's helpers (in reality, typically children of poor families), roamed the streets during the festival. They wore masks and dragged chains behind them, even occasionally hurling them towards children in their way. These Krampuslдufe (Krampus runs) still exist, although perhaps less violent than in the past. In the Czech Republic and Slovakia, Mikulбљ is often also accompanied by an angel who acts as a counterbalance to the ominous Knecht Ruprecht (čert). In Slovenia Saint Nikolaus (Miklavћ) is accompanied by an angel and a devil (parkelj) corresponding austrian Krampuss. In Luxembourg "Kleeschen" is accompanied by the "Houseker" a frightening helper wearing a brown monk's habit.
от oreok
Вт 13 дек 2005, 19:32
Форум: Small talks
Ответы: 69
Просмотры: 78666


Hey folks ! Come on ! Don’t let this poor little post die of “starvation”. Give it some food ! Poli made a start and so I’ll continue by telling you how XMAS is celebrated in GERMANY and in fact I intend to make you think about going to Germany on XMAS next year !!! It’s worth it !!! Therefore, I decided to present many interesting details to you and I’ll also give you a number of German XMAS words here you might find useful when you travel there.

In general XMAS and especially the pre XMAS season in Germany is a most beautiful, extraordinary time. The pre XMAS season starts with ADVENT which is derived from the Latin word ‘adventus’ meaning ‘arrival’ and in context with XMAS it refers to the arrival / birth of Jesus Christ. ADVENT are the last four Sundays before XMAS Eve. Therefore every German family has an ADVENTSKRANZ, a garland made of fir branches which like a XMAS tree is decorated with various little Christmassy objects. On the garland there are four candles and every Sunday one of them is lighted: one candle on the first Sunday, two candles on the second Sunday etc. On ADVENT afternoons very often family and friends meet to have coffee (or any other hot drink) and homemade XMAS buiscuits and cakes. I will tell you about the huge variety of these sweets later here.

For the children there is a special tradition: the ADVENTSKALENDER. This is a calendar made of cardboard or it can also be a chain of 24 XMAS stockings or other funny containers, fancy boxes etc. These 24 containers are filled with small symbolic presents (a chocolate, a ring, a little poem etc.) and starting 1 December, the children are allowed to to open one container every day, finishing 24 December, the day that is supposed to be Jesus’ birthday. In Germany when people refer to baby or infant Jesus, they usually say CHRISTKIND.

At the end of November, the latest 1 December, the WEIHNACHTSMARKT (German XMAS market) is opened in every town of the country. At these markets you’ll find a great number of stalls selling a huge variety of traditional handmade XMAS decoration, toys made of wood and sheet metal, (scented) candles and natural ethereal oils, herbs, teas, candy, jewelry and pretty scarves etc. Moreover, there are also many stalls selling fantastic German food e.g. ROSTBRATWURST (roasted sausages), KARTOFFELPUFFER or REIBEKUCHEN MIT APFELMUS (potato pancakes with apple sause, great !!!), KRAPFEN / MUZEN (a kind of doughnut: soft and spongy, with a thin brownish golden crust, smelling of vanilla, served warm, excellent !!).
For some years now, a number of migrants who have been living in Germany for a long time, have been participating in the XMAS markets, too, offering the lovely traditional food of their own countries, enriching the markets very much in this way. The markets are also an opportunity for local bands and choirs to perform traditional XMAS Carols, for migrant dancing ensambles to present traditional dances and for children from local infant and primary schools to perform nativity plays. The greatest, the most spectacular and most popular XMAS market is the NЬRNBERGER CHRISTKINDLMARKT (the market in Nuremberg).

6 December is NIKOLAUSTAG (Santa Claus Day). On the evening of 5 December, all the children leave their boots outside their room / their house, so that NIKOLAUS ( Santa) can come in the night (of course on a sleigh pulled by reindeer) and fill the boots with goodies: XMAS buiscuits, chocolates, nuts, mandarins and oranges. In German tradition Santa Claus doesn’t do the job on his own. You see, he fills the boots of only those children who were good girls and boys whereas those who were naughty are scolded and beaten with a cane by Santa’s other half called KNECHT RUPRECHT.

During the ADVENT period people have the opportunity to focus and remind themselves of the very spiritual origin and meaning of ADVENT and XMAS by attending ADVENT church services on the four Sundays but also to go to ecumenical services which some congregations offer in order to bring people of all denominations and other religions closer together, expressing in this way that in spite of our differences we’re all humans and in God’s eyes equal. After all one of the essential messages of XMAS is peace, love and respect among all people and peace on earth… The churches also open their doors for performances of German and foreign choirs singing XMAS Carols, Afro-American gospel etc. as well as for orchestras giving concerts of Classical music.

Another reason why XMAS in Germany is so exceptional (at least from my subjective point of view) is the variety and quality of XMAS food. Throughout the pre XMAS season, including ADVENT and the XMAS days, a generous number of special XMAS cakes and buiscuits as well as certain hot drinks are served. All these specialities contain the same traditional spices but as these spices are used in different combinations and amounts each speciality gets its very own, typical smell and flavour.

The German XMAS spices are: vanilla, cinnamon, clove, cardamom, ginger, nutmeg, aniseed and STERNANIS (a dry seed capsule in the shape of a star).

Typical German ingredients for XMAS specialities are: dark chocolate, fresh orange and lemon peel, candied orange and lemon peel (in little cubes) rum or brandy, walnuts, hazelnuts, almonds, raisins and marzipan.

Traditional German XMAS cakes and buiscuits:

STOLLEN: a cake made with yeast, of an oblong, rectangular, roundish shape, dark golden surface covered with fine sugar
A famous variety is the plain MANDELSTOLLEN from DRESDEN with grated almonds. My favourite one is the rich MARZIPANSTOLLEN containing a marzipan heart flavoured with rum, smelling of butter and filled with candied orange and lemon peel and raisins.

LEBKUCHEN (spiced gingerbread)
Some delicious varieties are:

dark, moist, soft texture, covered with chocolate, in the shape of a heart, filled with apricot jam

dark, round (5-7 cm in diameter), soft and moist, flavoured with orange peel and covered with dark chocolate

rectangular oblong shape (6-7 cm long), brown, either plain or sometimes flavoured with aniseed or special herbs, dry, covered with chocolate

Other XMAS buiscuits:

SPEKULATIUS: golden, crispy buiscuits, sometimes flavoured with spices or almonds, smelling of butter and vanilla

VANILLEKIPFERL (these melt in the mouth): light golden colour, crescent-shaped buisbuits with a fine vanilla flavour, covered with fine sugar

German XMAS hot drinks

GLЬHWEIN (mulled wine): I’m afraid I cannot recommend the one sold at XMAS markets because very often it’s just a very low quality mass product. Always prefer the homemade !!

EIERPUNSCH (egg-nog) and TEEPUNSCH (tea punch)

XMAS Eve in Germany is called HEILIGABEND (holy evening) and it’s celebrated 24 December. People put all the presents under the decorated tree and in the afternoon, usually families meet to have coffee and cake together and as it is a very special occasion, except the sweet XMAS specialities, people serve TORTE (cream cake) such as the famous Black Forest Cherry Cake. Traditionally on XMAS Eve, people go to the XMAS service in church taking place on very late evening and after the service families have XMAS dinner together. The traditional XMAS dish is GEFЬLLTE GANS MIT ROTKOHL UND KNЦDELN which is stuffed goose served with red cabbage (delicious!!) and German dumplings. There are various goose stuffings and their ingredients vary according to the geographical area they come from. Moreover, many families have their own family stuffing recipes. In general, common ingredients might include minced meat, onions, bread, prunes, dry apricots, apples, pears, chestnuts, different herbs etc.

Finally everybody is welcome to open his / her present and this opening procedure is called BESCHERUNG. It is quite common to sing XMAS Carols together and / or read fairy tales and stories to the children. On the following two XMAS days people often visit friends and relatives who were not able to visit them or they choose to stay at home for some peace and harmony and simply to talk to each other, go for a long walk if the weather is nice etc.
от oreok
Вт 13 дек 2005, 03:38
Форум: Small talks
Ответы: 3
Просмотры: 4382

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